The famous historian Edward Gibbon worked in detail about the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, and it was published in large six volumes between 1776 and 1788. The write up is into two parts. The first part covers nearly 300 years until the end of the Western Empire. But the rest of the 1000 years is in the second half.
The ancient Roman Empire was established in 27 BCE in the city of Rome in Europe after the demise of the Roman Republic. It continued till the fall of the Empire of the West in the 5th century CE.
Initiation Of The Roman Empire
The unrest and wars in the 1st century BC denote the shift of Rome from republic to empire. Julius Ceaser became the dictator of the empire. In 44BCE, after his assassination, Mark Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian, Julius’ nephew, ruled Rome. Octavian went on a war against Antony and became the first emperor, Augustus. During his reign from 27 BCE to 14 BCE, the peace and stability were retained. He formed a government, called principate, and he remained the controller of government as the first citizen. Under his rule, Rome began to prosper, and the public treated him like God.
People worshipped all the good emperors like God. Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius were the beloved rulers of Rome.
Decline And Split Of The Roman Empire
There were cruel emperors like Caligula and Nero, whose reign was struck off from the records. Tiberius was the ruler when Jesus Christ got crucification. After his death, the Christians were frequently killed and tortured until the advent of Constantine.
In 313 AC, a proclamation was issued on the toleration of all religions. But the empire was declining. Theodosius was the last monarch of the united Roman Empire. The Western Empire became weak due to repeated invasions, and after the death of Theodosius, Rome was split into the eastern and western empire. In 476, the fall of the empire was complete as Odoacer deposed the last emperor of Western Rome, Romulus Augustulus. But the richer and prosperous Eastern Rome continued as Byzantine Empire.
Amazing Administration, Literature And City Planning
In the Mediterranian basin, a large area of Western Europe and Northern Africa, Rome was the dominant empire. The Romans were the pioneer in forming a well-organized army, law, city planning, state-craft, and they also adopted the contributions of other civilizations like The Greek civilization and were inspired by them.
Moreover, the roads of Rome have the perfect designs for fast transportation. There were separate tracks for various functions, like defense, commerce, agriculture, postal vans, pedestrians, and also passenger vehicle. The city planning depended on unparallel hygiene maintenance. The sewerage system, bathrooms, dams, plumbing had scientific designs. Though it is imitative of Greek civilization, the plan was beautiful. The Roman bathrooms were perfect to refresh the senses while cleansing the body.
Latin was the language of the Romans, and later, it became the medium of expressing art and literature of Western civilization. Tacitus and Terence’s drama, Virgil’s poetry, and also many such carry the legacy of Rome.