Ancient Rome


As the legend states, Romulus and Remus, twin sons of Mars were the founders of Rome. Mars is considered as the god of war. Mars raped the daughter of Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. Later she got pregnant and gave birth to twin sons.  Hence Romulus and Remus are the grandsons of King Numitor. They are the descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas. Further, the twins were, considered half-divine.

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Ancient Rome- Origin And Society

King Numitor was, disposed of by his brother Amulius. Amulius tried to kill them. They were left to drown in the Tiber River. A she-wolf saved them. Later the twins defeated that king. Tiber River in 753 B.C. Romulus became the first king of Rome, after killing his brother Remus. Hence, he named the empire after himself as Rome. As this is what the legend states; no historical evidence was found to prove this legend.

 Thereupon, Sabine, Latin, and Etruscan are some early Italian civilizations who ruled Rome. The seventh king was King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. He is, portrayed as a cruel and tyrant ruler compared to previous rulers. Ultimately with the dethroning of King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the monarchy of Roman-era ended. This event occurred in 509 B.C. Henceforth, a series of events turned Rome from a monarchy into a republic.

Ancient Rome- Origin And Society
Ancient Rome- Origin And Society

Ancient Rome Society

Rome was the most significant urban city in the empire. With a population of approximately one million, the city had a bustling crowd. Chariot traffic made King Julius Ceaser banned chariots during the day. As per historical estimates, around 20 percent of the population lived in urban centers. The rate of urbanization was very high. Furthermore, Temples, forums, and other buildings were part of the city.


Initially, around 449BC, the Law of the Twelve Tables formed the basis of law and order. Later the codification of law by order of Emperor Justinian I around 530 AD laid the legal foundation. Until the end of the 17th-century Roman law continued to be, applied throughout most of Europe.

Class Structure

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Ancient Rome- Origin And Society

Roman society has a hierarchical structure. At the top, there are free-born citizens (cives) then in the middle, there are freedmen (liberti), and at the bottom are the slaves (servi). There was a further classification of Free-born citizens.

Education Of Ancient Rome

The early Republic had no public schools, so boys were, taught to read and write by their parents, or by educated slaves. Usually, the aim of education during this period was to train young men in agriculture, warfare, traditions, and public affairs.

Government Of Ancient Rome

In addition to the king’s authority, there were three legislative assemblies. They were the Senate, an advisory body to the king. The Comitia Curiata, it endorsed and ratified laws suggested by the king; and the Comitia Calata, an assembly of officials for public hearing and announcements.

Military Of Ancient Rome

Around 9,000 free men were a part of the army, organized in five classes. The early Roman army had limited men, and it was defensive.

Economy Of Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome had a vast area of cultivable land. Moreover, it had both natural and human resources. Hence it emphasized farming and trade.

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